The Pursuit of Peace

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Timetable of Peace Memorials & Counter-peace Nuclear Weapons Promotion (nuclear tests & arms by other states, i.e., negative input, is underlined)

Year Month/Date What Happened
1946 July 1 U.S. resumes nuclear testing at Bikini Atoll.
August 6 Hiroshima: religious groups hold first anniversary memorial services for A-bomb dead.
August 9 Nagasaki memorial services for A-bomb dead.
1947 August 6 Hiroshima mayor issues “Peace Declaration.”
August 9 Nagasaki memorial services for A-bomb dead.
1948 August 6 Hiroshima’s first Peace Festival.
August 9 Nagasaki mayor issues “Peace Declaration” at city’s “Cultural Festival” (Gen. Douglas MacArthur sends greeting).
1949 June 3 Hiroshima ceremony for A-bomb dead.
August 29 USSR conducts first atomic test (Siberia).
1950 August 6 Hiroshima Peace Festival cancelled by Occupation GHQ, but “unauthorized peace rallies” held.
August 9 Nagasaki: “unauthorized peace rallies” held.
1951 August 9 First Kyushu District Peace Rally (but no city-wide rally this year in either Hiroshima or Nagasaki).
1952 August 6 Hiroshima City dedicates A-bomb Memorial Cenotaph
August 9 Nagasaki memorial services for A-bomb dead.
1953 August No peace ceremonies or declarations.
August 12 USSR tests first hydrogen bomb.
1954 March 1 U.S. hydrogen bomb tested at Bikini Atoll, with radioactive fallout on Japanese fishing vessel.
August Nationwide citizens’ antinuclear signature campaign launched in Tokyo.
1955 August 6-8 First World Conference against Atomic & Hydrogen Bombs, held in Hiroshima.
August 9 Nagasaki dedicates Peace Memorial Statue.
August 24 Hiroshima dedicates Peace Memorial Museum.
1956 August 9 Second World Conference against Atomic & Hydrogen Bombs held in Nagasaki.
Japan Federation of A- and H-bomb Sufferers Organization holds inaugural assembly in Nagasaki.
1957 May 15 Britain sets off its first hydrogen bomb, at Christmas Island.
October Nagasaki Peace Conference formed.
1958 March 31 USSR announces stop of nuclear testing.
August 22 U.S. and Britain announce one-year moratorium of nuclear tests, beginning October 31.
Oct.31-Dec.19 U.S., Britain, USSR hold consultations on nuclear test moratorium in Geneva.
1960 February 13 France conducts first A-bomb test, in Sahara Desert.
May 7 U.S. announces resumption of underground nuclear testing.
1961 August 12 Seventh World Conference against Atomic and Hydrogen Bombs opens in Tokyo.
November 15 USSR announces resumption of nuclear testing. National Council for Peace and Against Nuclear Weapons organized.
1962 January U.S. announces resumption of nuclear testing in Pacific, beginning in April.
August 4-6 Eighth World Conference against Atomic and Hydrogen Bombs aborted as opinions clash over protests against Soviet nuclear tests.
October 22 U.S. announces blockade of Cuba in response to Soviet missile sites built there
1963 July 15 U.S. and USSR agree on Limited Test-ban Treaty, banning nuclear tests in atmosphere, outer space, and under water.
August 5 Ninth World Conference against Atomic and Hydrogen Bombs held in Hiroshima, boycotted by Japan Socialist Party and the General Council of Trade Unions, ends in split.
August 14 Japan signs Limited Test-ban Treaty.
1964 August 3 Separate “world conferences against atomic and hydrogen bombs” held in Kyoto and Hiroshima, leading to separation into Japan Council against Atomic and Hydrogen Bombs (Gensuikyo) and Japan Congress against Atomic and Hydrogen Bombs (Gensuikin).
  August 5 Three-Prefecture Liaison Conference against atomic and hydrogen bombs held in Hiroshima; Toshiro Kanai proposes a white paper on nuclear damages to be presented to the United Nations.
  August 5 Radiation Research Center of South Korea’s Atomic Energy Agency conducts survey of Korean A-bomb victims, lists 203 names (164 from Hiroshima, 39 from Nagasaki).
  October 3 Peace Problems Research Group of university professors from adjacent Hiroshima, Yamaguchi, and Okayama prefectures proposes white paper on nuclear damages.
  October 16 People’s Republic of China conducts first atomic bomb explosion.
1965 August 5 Five representatives of university group and Committee of Seven to Appeal for World Peace interview Prime Minister Eisaku Sato to petition for white paper on A-bomb damages.
November 1 Ministry of Health and Welfare undertakes Japanese government’s first nationwide survey of actual conditions of A-bomb victims.
December 7 Committee for promotion of an A-bomb damages white paper formed in Tokyo.Committee for promotion of an A-bomb damages white paper formed in Tokyo.
1966 August 4-5 Scientists against A- and H-bombs hold first meeting in Hiroshima.
1967 February 11 Founding group of Korean A-bomb Victims Relief Association meets in Seoul.
June 17 People’s Republic of China conducts first hydrogen bomb test.
November 9 A-bomb documentary films confiscated by the U.S. are returned to Japan.
1968 July 1 U.S., Britain, and USSR sign Nuclear Non-proliferation Treaty (NPT).
  August 24 France conducts its first hydrogen bomb test in the South Pacific.
1970 February 3 Japan signs Nuclear Non-proliferation Treaty (ratified June 8, 1976).
1971 June 17 Agreement for reversion of Okinawa to Japan signed (effective May 15, 1972).
  December 13 Survey team (sponsored by Japan Congress against Atomic and Hydrogen Bombs) to study H-bomb damages in Micronesia is denied entry into island zone.
1972 June 1 Hiroshima Institute for Peace opens.
November 1 Nagasaki Prefecture/City conduct basic survey of A-bomb victims and families.
1973 May 9 Ministry of Foreign Affairs holds ceremony for return of Hiroshima-Nagasaki A-bomb records confiscated by U.S. during Occupation (1945-52).
Oct. 13-14 First national symposium on peace education held in Hiroshima.
1974 May 16 India conducts its first A-bomb test in northwest India.
1975 July 12-13 Scientists Forum in Tokyo appeals for ban on nuclear weapons
August 1-5 World Peace Education Conference held at Wilmington College, Ohio, with theme of “Hiroshima after Thirty Years: A Call to World Community.”
August 5 Hiroshima and Nagasaki enter into “Peace Culture Cities Covenant.”
September 1 Ministry of Health and Welfare undertakes second nationwide survey of A-bomb victims’ actual conditions.
1976 Oct. 13-15 National group to appeal for total nuclear bomb ban visits U.N. and presents report on Hiroshima-Nagasaki A-bomb damages to U.N. Secretary-General Kurt Waldheim.
December 1 Mayors of Hiroshima and Nagasaki meet with U.N. Secretary-General Kurt Waldheim to press for “total abolition of nuclear weapons and general and complete disarmament.”
1977 July 21–Aug. 2 NGO Symposium on Damages and Aftereffects of the Atomic Bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki.
August 3-6 Unified World Conference against Atomic and Hydrogen Bombs held in Hiroshima.
H.S. Amerasinghe, president of 31st U.N. General Assembly, participates in Hiroshima peace ceremony.
August 9 U.N. President Amersinghe joins in Nagasaki peace ceremony.
1978 Feb. 27–Mar. 2 NGO International Disarmament Conference held in Geneva.
May 23–Jun.28 U.N. Special Session on Disarmament held in New York. Mayors of Hiroshima and Nagasaki attend U.N Special Session to appeal for total abolition of nuclear weapons. Exhibit of Hiroshima-Nagasaki A-bomb photographs held in UN headquarters, May 23–June 30.
August 1 World conference for total ban on nuclear weapons and relief for A-bomb victims held in Tokyo (Aug. 1-2), Hiroshima (Aug. 5-6), and Nagasaki (Aug. 9). (This was the first unified conference in Nagasaki in fifteen years.)
1980 June 19 Four Hiroshima A-bomb survivors testify in public session of U.S. Senate on “effects of nuclear war.”
Sept. 28 U.N. Secretary-General warns that the 40,000 nuclear weapons in the world’s arsenals are equivalent to one million Hiroshima-type bombs.
1981 February 25 Pope John Paul issues peace appeal on visit to Hiroshima; repeats appeal in Nagasaki (Feb. 26).
March 19 Inaugural meeting of International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War (IPPNW) held in Washington, DC.
1982 March 21 Huge peace rally held in Hiroshima, and another in Tokyo (May 5), aimed at Second U.N. Special Session on Disarmament.
June 7 U.N. General Assembly’s Second Special Session on Disarmament opens, as one million persons join antinuclear march through New York City (June 12).
1983 January 20 Hiroshima and Nagasaki mayors appeal to major 72 cities in 23 countries to join in the “program to promote the solidarity of cities toward the total abolition of nuclear weapons.”
1985 May 31 As of this date, the mayors of Hiroshima and Nagasaki had protested nuclear arms tests by nuclear states 668 times. . . .
August 5-9 First World Conference of Mayors for Peace through Inter-city Solidarity held in Hiroshima and Nagasaki.

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